Ulmus glabra Wych elm (also Ulmus procera-English elm)
Amelanchier alnifolia (Juneberry), Rosaceae
These open June–July and have a pleasant sweet flavour. Unfortunately, the birds love them too – so you have to net them if you want to eat them.
Scorzonera hispanica (Scorzonera), Asteracea or Compositae
Allium paradoxum (Few-flowered Leek), Alliaceae
Crataegus monogyna Native Hawthorn
This native woodland edge tree comes into leaf early in the year. The fresh young leaves are edible raw in salads – or just pick and eat from the tree! They are rich in nutrients.
The flowers and fruits can be made into a tea which is good for the heart. The fruits are edible but rather small and mealy.
(see other hawthorn species later in the year, with larger, nicer fruit )
Tillia species lime tree
Fagus sylvatica Beech
Allium triquetrum Three-cornered leek, Alliaceae
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel
The young leaves have an aniseed flavour and are an excellent addition to salads. The flowers and seeds are also edible. It is good for the digestion.
This plant is the perennial herb and not the biennial bulb.
Malva moschata (Musk Mallow), Malvaceae
These edible young leaves have a bland flavour and a mucilaginous texture. The idea of a mixed salad is that you use the bland leaves such as this one as a base, and add in the strongly flavoured leaves according to what you like.
The flowers and the seed heads can also be eaten.
All mallows are potentially edible.
Allium ursinum (Wild Garlic), Alliaceae
Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), Apiaceae or Umbelliferae
Malus domestica (Apple), Rosaceae, In flower.
One of the delights of this time of year is the apple blossom. We have over 100 different varieties of apple, ranging from the very early (ready for eating in August) to the very late (for storing until June the following year), and everything in between.
Campanula persicifolia (harebell)
Sorbus aucuparia (Rowan), Rosaceae, flowers
The small orange berries that come in the late summer are used for making jams and jellies. If eaten raw they are difficult to enjoy, but there is a larger-fruited cultivar that is said to be more palatable.
The trees are useful in an orchard, as the berries help to keep the birds off the developing apples.
Sorbus torminalis (Wild Service Tree), Rosaceae, in flower
A related species, S. domestica, has larger fruits that are delicious when bletted. (Take care not to over-blet, as they will then continue fermenting inside you, with very uncomfortable results!)
Rosa rugosa, Rosaceae,
Berberis (Barberry), Berberidaceae, flowers
Berberis vulgaris (Common Barberry), Berberidaceae, flowering
Bees love the flowers, which are rich in nectar.
Many species of wild bee thrive on our land because for a very large part of the year there is a wide variety of flowers for them to feed on. And, of course, we use no chemicals on the land!
Pittosporum tenuifolium (Tawhiwhi), Pittosporaceae
The flowers have a beautiful scent and are very attractive to bees.
Menyanthes trifoliata (Bogbean), Menyanthaceae, growing in the pond
Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Lamiaceae or Labiatae
Aronia arbutifolia (Red Chokeberry), Rosaceae, flowering
Elaeagnus multiflora (Cherry Silverberry), Elaeagnaceae
This is one of the deciduous species of Elaeagnus. It flowers in the spring and fruits in the autumn. The fruits are smaller and less astringent than those of the evergreen E. cordifolia, which fruits in March.
Rheum x cultorum (Rhubarb), Polygonaceae
The large petioles (leaf stalks) are eaten in spring and early summer as a fruit substitute. Like sorrel, though, they are rich in oxalic acid, which tends to rob the body of minerals – so don’t eat too much of it!
Rheum palmatum (Turkish Rhubarb), Polygonaceae
The stems and leaf stalks have dark red spots. The plant goes to seed and produces beautiful flowers. It can be used in the same way as ordinary rhubarb, but is more strongly medicinal (helpful for both constipation and diarrhoea).
Campanula glomerata (Clustered Bellflower), Campanulaceae
The leaves and the flowers are edible.
Cardamine pratensis Lady’s smock
Rumex acetosa Polish sorrel
Allium neapolitanum (Daffodil garlic), Alliaceae
The beautiful, edible flowers are now out.
Rubus phoenicolasius Japanese wineberry
this is a delightful plant, with beautiful stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. The fruits are ready in July or August, and have a lovely flavour. They are also free from maggots , as the calyx closes up again to protect the developing fruit.
Houttuynia cordata (Orange peel plant)
Rubus deliciosus (North American Raspberry)
Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm)
Like most other plants at this time of year, this nice and fresh and green. This can be used to make a pleasant soothing tea or added in small amounts to salads.
The following perennial medicinal herb can also be used in small amounts in salads or made into teas:-
Mentha piperita peppermint
Thymus vulgaris thyme
Rosmarinus officinarlis rosemary
Salvia officinarlis sage
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